May 18, 2022

Perceptions of Scientific Authorship Revisited: Country Differences and the Impact of Perceived Publication Pressure

Relying on data collected by the Zurich Survey of Academics (ZSoA), a unique representative online survey among academics in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (DACH region), this paper replicates Johann and Mayer’s (Minerva 57(2):175-196, 2019) analysis of researchers’ perceptions of Bio Med Frontiers scientific authorship and expands their scope.

The primary goals of the study at hand are to learn more about (a) country differences in perceptions of scientific authorship, as well as (b) the influence of perceived publication pressure on authorship perceptions.

The results indicate that academics in Switzerland interpret scientific authorship more leniently than their colleagues in Germany and Austria. The Provider findings further indicate that, as perceived pressure to publish increases, researchers are more likely to belong to a group of academics who hold the view that any type of contribution/task justifies co-authorship, including even those contributions/tasks that do not justify co-authorship according to most authorship guidelines.

In summary, the present study suggests that action is required to harmonize regulations for scientific authorship and to improve the research culture.

Rates of publication of FCPS dissertations in international and national peer-review journals among residents at AKUH; A cross sectional review of 15 years.

To see the rate of publication of postgraduate residents’ dissertation.
 The single-centre retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised research publications from the residents of the departments of Surgery and Medicine who graduated between 2005 and 2020.
The surgical subspecialties included Otolaryngology, Ophthalmology, Dentistry, General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Paediatric Surgery, Urology, Plastic Surgery and Cardiovascular Surgery.
Data comprised demographics, current institution, current designation, information on dissertation/paper publication, the topic of study, year of completion of the dissertation, input from the research department, delay in exam due to incomplete dissertation and whether the paper got published in a national or international journal. Data was analysed using SPSS 21.
 Of the 103 subjects, 70(68%) were males and 33(32%) were females, while 73(70.8%) belonged to surgical specialties and 30(29.2%) were from non-surgical specialties. Of the 22(22.9%) who were able to convert, 12(54.5%) publications were carried by national peer-reviewed journals, while 10(45.4%) were carried by international journals; 9(40.9%) unpaid peer review journals and 13(59.1%) paid journals.
Delay in exam due to incomplete dissertation was faced by only 16(16.6%) candidates. The rate of publication for resident dissertation was found to be low.
Dissertation, Paper publication, FCPS dissertation, Residency, Synopsis..

Size of the science team at university and internal co-publications: science policy implications.

  • Scientific collaboration within a science team (unit, group, etc.) has been under scrutiny. Recently, science of team science has emerged to use science for deep understanding of the ways researchers jointly perform science to increase their team’s performance.
  • This article analyses internal scientific outputs with respect to the size of university’s science team. The objective is to examine the science policy motive that is, if the team size increases, by encouraging academics to gather in larger teams, then their outputs increase.
  • The method of the contrapositive of this conditional statement is adopted. Thus, 120 accredited teams, composed of about 1500 academics in four universities in Morocco, were analyzed using a cross-matrix of members’ co-publications, an intra-collaboration index, Lorenz curve of both internal co-publications and sole-publications, with respect to team’s size.
  • Our findings show that internal co-publications and sole ones are higher for small size teams and that the Lorenz distributions of these two indicators are unequal in favor of small size teams. We discuss the implications of our findings for science policy, beyond size, such as the output- instead of input-based perspective to form a team, time requirement to build a collaborative team, inter- and intra-disciplinarity oriented research, team directorship, etc.

Current opinion on the role of vitamin D supplementation in respiratory infections and asthma/COPD exacerbations: A need to establish publication guidelines for overcoming the unpublished data.

The role of prophylactic vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections and other related pathologies has been extensively explored with conflicting results.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of vitamin D administration on respiratory infections.
 A systematic search was performed and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation and a total of 65 RCTs involving 50,554 participants were included.
 The overall incidence of respiratory infections in terms of count data (OR: 0.87; 95%CI [0.80-0.95]; p = 0.0028; I2 = 43%) and event rate (IRR: 0.81; 95%CI [0.70-0.95]; p = 0.010; I2 = 79%) was significantly reduced in the intervention group.
However, no effect of vitamin D on duration or upper respiratory tract infection severity was observed following the overall analysis.
Subgroup analyses revealed more details regarding the protective effect of particular dose ranges, administration frequencies and trial durations on different disease types.
 Despite between-study heterogeneity was high for most outcomes and publication bias may have led to an effect size overestimation of incidence count data, vitamin D supplementation could be beneficial in improving resistance to overall respiratory infections, particularly when administered on a daily basis.
 Cholecalciferol; Meta-analysis; Prophylaxis; Systematic review.

Publication Trends of Research on Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy During 2001-2020: A 20-Year Bibliometric Study

 Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a special subtype of AMD, which is one of the leading threats to vision health worldwide.
At this time, many aspects of PCV, from how it works to potential treatments, remain a mystery. In this study, we explored the frontier researches and revealed the study trends within the study of PCV.
We collected all the publications in this field from 2001 to 2020, analyzed trends within them, and defined the contributions of various countries/regions, institutions, authors, and journals. Additionally, VOSviewer software was used to define the hot keywords in this field.
 A total of 1,190 publications were ultimately examined; We found that PCV is becoming an increasingly relevant topic of research, and that Japan has contributed the most publications (428), the most citations (14,504 in total), and the highest H-index value (62) to the field.
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Our keywords analysis was classified into four clusters to show the hotspots within the study of PCV, namely mechanism-related, imaging-related, prognosis-related, and therapy-related topics. The average years in which the keywords appeared the most were also calculated, and we identified anti-VEGF therapy, anti-complement therapy and angiography as having been the main focus in recent years.
 These results helped clarify the comprehensive research progress that has been made as well as the future trends in the study of PCV, which can assist and guide future research.

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